Active and Passive:What and how?

Sentences can be written in two ways.It can be written either in Active form or in Passive form.A sentence is called Active when it begins with the performer of the action or when the subject of the sentence is the doer or actor.e.g. He said this.

But,when the sentence is begun with the object or person that the action is performed on or the subject of the sentence is acted upon,the sentence is called Passive.e.g. This was said by him.


Rules for changing the active Voice into Passive:

Assertive Sentence:

To change an Assertive Sentence from Active to Passive the following rules should be followed…

  1. The object in the Active Voice becomes subject in Passive.
  2. The subject in the active becomes the agent in the passive,preceded by the preposition by
  3. The verb is changed into the past participle form.

It can be more clarified with a diagram:


Changes of different tenses:


Interrogative Sentence:

Two types of Interrogative Sentences are

  • Inverted Question 

Helping verb/modal verb+sub.+v3+by+agent

Have you done it ?

Has it been done by you?

  • Specific Question

Question word+hv/mv+sub.+v3+by+agent ?

What did they do ?

What was done by them ?


Imperative Sentence 

Let+subject+be+past participle of verb/to +be+verb3

1.Do it

  • Let it be done

2.Tell him to go.

  • He should be told to go.


Examples:

Do you know him?

  • Is he known to you?

Where did you see him?

  • Where was he seen by you?

Are you reading the book?

  • Is the book being read by you?

They bought toys.

  • Toys were bought by them.

She is cooking rice in the kitchen.

  • Rice is being cooked by her in the kitchen.

My book has been lost.

  • I have lost my book.

Keep your word.

  • Your word should be kept.

Help the poor.

  • The poor should be helped.

Shut the door.

  • Let the door be shut.


 

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Speech:direct and indirect |part 2

 

 

In my last blog post I wrote about what speech is and also some basic rules of it.Today  I am going to discuss some General Rules about how to change a Direct Speech into Indirect Speech.

 

 

(Image: Internet)
General Rules to convert sentences 

A. Assertive Sentence:

To change an Assertive Sentence from Direct to Indirect we should follow the following rules.

Rule 1:

1.1 In indirect speech the conjunction THAT is generally used before the speech.

1.2 If  the Reporting Verb is in Present or future,the tense of the verb in the REPORTED speech is not changed.e.g.

Rabin says,”I shall go.”(Direct)

 Ram says that he will go.(Indirect)

1.3 If the REPORTED Speech states a Universal Truth,a Habitual Action or Past Historical Event the tense of the verb in the Reported Speech is not changed. e.g.

He said,”Honesty is the best policy.”(Direct)

He said that honesty is the best policy.(Indirect)

 

1.4 If the reporting verb is in the Past Tense,change the verb in the reported speech into the Corresponding Past form.e.g.

He said to me,”I was doing it.”(Direct)

He told me that he had been doing it.(Indirect)

B. Interrogative Sentences:

To convert an Interrogative Sentence from  Direct to Indirect,the following rules should be follow:

 

Rule 2

2.1 Instead of using conjunction that,ask or enquire should be used before the speech.

2.2 add whether or If   with Inverted questions (i.e. yes/no question);but do not add whether or  If ,if the question is Specific (i.e. wh’ question).e.g.

 1. John said to Sam,”Will you help me?

John asked Sam if he would help him.(Inverted Question)

2.John said to Sam,”What are you doing?”

John asked Sam what he was doing.(Specific Question)

2.3 Should change the interrogative form into a statement.

C. Imperative Sentence:

To change an Imperative Sentence from direct speech to indirect speech we should

Rule 3

3.1 change the verb into the Infintive form and reporting verb into some such words as ‘tell’,’request’,’command’,’beg’,’entreat’, as the sense of the speech may required.e.g.

The pupil said to the teacher,”Please explain the passage.”

The pupil requested the teacher to explain the passage.

3.2 when the reported speeh in direct starts with the word Let  and if the word expresses a proposal or suggestion,we should use should for let, and should change the reporting verb into Propose or Suggest. e.g.

She said to me,”Let us arrange a picnic.”

She proposed to me that we should arrange a picnic.

3.3 when Let does not express a proposal,it should be changed into might or might be allowed. e.g

The stranger said,”Let me go.”

The stranger wished that he might be allowed to go. 

D. Exclamatory Sentence:

In exclamation sentences,the following rules should be follow :

Rule 4 

4.1 the Reporting Verb should be changed to some verb as ‘exclaim’,’cry out’,’pray’,’wish.

4.2 the exclamation should be turned into a statement. e.g.

He said,”Congratulations !”

He congratulated me

E. Optative Sentence:

The rule(s) to convert an Optative Sentence from Direct to Indirect are

Rule 5

5.1 the Reporting Verb should be changed into wish  or pary. 

5.2 the Optative form should be changed into a statement. e.g.

She said to me,”May God bless you.”

She prayed that God might bless me.

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Why I choose Blogging?

First of all I want to wish you all a happy new year 2018.Hi I am Anup Going. I am a High School teacher .

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